There is often some confusion about when to use which type of instrument, since there is often some functional overlap when used by installers. This training note explains their relative merits.
Deciding factors are usually to do with:
An Optical Time Domain Reflectometer is essentially an optical radar: it sends out a flash of bright light, and measures the intensity of echo or reflections. This weak signal is averaged to reduce detection noise, and computation is used to display a trace and make a number of mathematical deductions.
What are OTDRs used for?
This instrument is really good for measuring points loss on installed systems, where it is used to find faults and measure point losses such as caused by splicing. However to do this accurately is more complicated and time consuming than is commonly supposed, since a measurement should be taken from both ends of the system, and then averaged. If this is not done, spurious excess losses and “gainers” may be recorded where different fibers are joined, resulting in wasted splicing effort while non-existent faults are “repaired”. This is a particular issue when measuring the fusion splice joints, where the loss is small, and the adjacent sections may have fibers with different intrinsic backscatter characteristics.
OTDRs can be used for return loss measurements, although quoted accuracy is not very high.
Who is likely to use an OTDR?
This is most commonly used during installation acceptance and maintenance of outside plant cables. In this role, it is likely to be used to identify point losses, the length of various cables, and to measure return loss.
- Interpreting the trace requires too much skill for most field technicians . These people must rely on the built in automation program to compile data tables, and may have little idea what to do with the trace. Since only highly skilled users can set up the parameters for this automation, in some circumstances most users can get into major difficulty.
- Acceptance verification is relatively easy, since standard procedures and automated measurement can generally be used. However using the same instrument for fault finding may require a totally different class of operator, who understands how control the measurement process in great detail, and also interpret the trace accurately.
- Because of the skill requirements, the majority of organisations end up with a small number of identified “experienced” operators, who train others, and are called out to problem situations.
- Limited ability to separate multiple point losses that are fairly close together. This problem happens quite regularly in practice, and is due to the “dead zone” effect. Although instruments may advertise an event dead zone of say 5 m, this is only under specific conditions. In practice the dead zone may go up to a km for long distance work. This makes these instruments of less use on short systems. Other tools, such as a visible laser, may be required to precisely identify the fault. This has become a big issue as the fibre count in cables has increased, which has caused an increase in the requirement to avoid disturbing already installed closures and racks.
- The distance measurement accuracy is only about 1 – 2 % at best. For example a displayed result of 12.1567 Km is actually more realistically 11.91 – 12.39 Km, an uncertainty to field staff of nearly half a Km. The reasons for this are fundamental and are due to variations in cable manufacture and index of refraction. So a measurement of 1 Km, is typically not 1 Km of cable, and certainly not the exact route length. Use of a Cold Clamp can greatly improve distance accuracy.
- Limited accuracy when determining the end to end loss of a system. It typically makes a poor job of measuring the loss of the end connectors, which are themselves a cause of problems.
- Limited use on “passive optical network” systems that use couplers or splitters to connect one source to multiple locations. This is because measuring in this configuration only works in one direction, and so this method cannot be reliable.
- Cannot be used in compliance with new multimode fiberoptics loss measuring standards, which mandate the use on an LED source with defined characteristics.
- Accidental connection to a receiver can damage the receiver due to the high instantaneous power levels. There can be some optical safety issues associated with the high pulse powers in these instruments, which often exceed +20 dBm.
- Factors to look for are now typically ease of use, quality of automation program, good local support, and compatibility with previously acquired measurement file types.
Optical loss test sets incorporate a stable source and a meter. Measurements are made with a two stage process. First the source power is measured (referenced), then light is put through the device to be tested, and a second measurement is made. The difference in the measurements is the device loss.
What is an LTS best used for?
- A pair of these units can be used to simply and reliably measure end to end loss of installed systems, preferably using a bi-directional or two-way method at multiple wavelengths, with minimum inventory and modest technician skill levels.
- There are a wide variety of LTS, with wide differences in resulting productivity. The simplest are just a source and meter in one box. The most sophisticated perform automated bi-directional, multi-wavelength loss and return loss measurement in a few seconds.
- LTS are fairly easy to use: in most organisations, many technical staff could perform a loss measurement.
- Most LTS can be used to measure the absolute power of a transmitter or receiver, and some can be used as a tone transmitter or detector.
- If the LTS measures return loss as well, the requirements for optical TDR evaluation may be eliminated in some cases.
- Some LTS actually provide the simplest possible solution of all types, since their automation makes them less complex to use than a separate source and meter.
- A single LTS instrument may be cheaper than a separate source and meter, and so may be a cheaper solution in some cases.
Who is likely to use an LTS?
These are widely used by almost everyone involved in hands-on work, since it is the simplest way to ensure that connections are up to standard. Used during work on component manufacture, equipment manufacture, cables and transmission systems. In this role, it is used to to formally accept end to end loss specifications, and sometimes to measure return loss.
- An LTS cannot identify the position of a point fault in a route that otherwise passes the end to end loss specifications. For this reason, both OTDRs and LTS are often used for acceptance verification.
- In some situations, it is cheaper and easier to use a separate source and meter.
- Specific instruments may have particular limitations to do with accuracy, warm up periods, battery lifetime and ease of use.
- An LTS should have some sort of automated wavelength synchronisation for measurement at multiple wavelengths. Not all units have this useful feature.
Sources and Meters perform the same functions as an LTS, however with greater flexibility, since a single source and meter pair can also be used each end of a link.
Who is likely to use a Source and Meter?
This performs a similar role to an LTS, with the advantage of great flexibility, and the disadvantage of increased inventory and slower operation. Transmission personnel may use a meter on it’s own to measure the absolute power of transmitters and receivers.
Source and Meter Limitations:
Specific instruments may have particular limitations to do with accuracy, warm up periods, battery lifetime and ease of use.
Source and meter combinations that don’t have some sort of automated wavelength synchronisation will be harder to operate.
Instruments are available with different levels of integration. It is possible to buy OTDRs with built in source, meter, visible fault finder, talk set etc. However is this desirable? The answer to this is “often not”, whatever a sales person says. It depends on: